There has been a lot of research in recent years, largely funded by the Department of Energy, into microorganisms that can produce fuels or other usable, renewable forms of energy. Recently, The Genome Center, working with Prof. Himadri B. Pakrasi, sequenced the very interesting Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 genome. The Cyanothece 51142 genome has both a circular chromosome (standard for cyanobacteria) and a linear chromosome (unique among cyanobacteria). Cyanobacteria are the only known bacteria to have a circadian cycle, turning on photosynthesis and sugar production genes during the day and energy metabolism, nitrogen fixation and respiration genes at night. With the Cyanothece 51142 genome in hand, Prof. Pakrasi is starting a comparative genomics study with six other species of cyanobacteria. Comparing these seven genomes and the ability of each cyanobacteria to produce hydrogen will provide insight into which genes and gene pathways are are most important in hydrogen production. Such research will potentially allow future researchers to intentionally mutate specific portions of a cyanobacteria genome to increase its hydrogen production.